TRAINING

OATH

TENETS

PATTERN

FIVE MOTIONS

SYLLABUS

SPARRING

BELTS

I shall observe the tenets of Taekwon-Do.

All students must swear to carefully observe, acknowledge and live by each one of the taekwon-do tenets. Here is a brief and basic explanation of each.



I shall respect the instructor and seniors.

A student vows to respect their instructors and those senior to them (both in age and rank). An instructor must also act respectfully to all students and persons in order to be respected and therefore not misusing Taekwon-Do



I shall never misuse Taekwon-Do.

One will never misuse Taekwon-Do to harm another, for their own personal gain or for any other manner that is unjust (this one is particularly important in any martial art, not just Taekwon-Do, as a trained martial artist could easily kill a person in unarmed close combat).



I shall be a champion of freedom and justice.

The 4th line, “I shall be a champion of freedom and justice” can apply to many areas of life and although many may think one would have to do something amazing to achieve this, this part of the oath can be respected by even the littlest things in ones daily activity. If one becomes more open-minded to understanding others ideologies or the way others go about their lives instead of being quick to judge, then maybe the world would be a more understanding and accepting place. Thus allowing people to have the freedom they deserve. By accepting this belief one is bringing justice to this world and therefore being a champion of justice.[16][17] As we often see, conflicts can occur over common misconceptions of information. One must understand the full story and have all the facts before he can truly make a proper judgement.



I shall build a more peaceful world.

The final line of the oath is “I shall build a more peaceful world”. One can also easily obtain this goal by going about their daily lives in a more peaceful manner. If everyone did this, the world would obviously become a more peaceful place.[17] As we often see, conflicts can occur over common misconceptions of information. One must understand the full story and have all the facts before he can truly make a proper judgement.[16] However, this does not mean a student cannot defend themselves against aggression directed towards themselves as that would defeat some of the purpose of Taekwondo, an art of unarmed self-defence.




I shall observe the tenets of Taekwon-Do.

All students must swear to carefully observe, acknowledge and live by each one of the taekwon-do tenets. Here is a brief and basic explanation of each.



I shall respect the instructor and seniors.

A student vows to respect their instructors and those senior to them (both in age and rank). An instructor must also act respectfully to all students and persons in order to be respected and therefore not misusing Taekwon-Do



I shall never misuse Taekwon-Do.

One will never misuse Taekwon-Do to harm another, for their own personal gain or for any other manner that is unjust (this one is particularly important in any martial art, not just Taekwon-Do, as a trained martial artist could easily kill a person in unarmed close combat).



I shall be a champion of freedom and justice.

The 4th line, “I shall be a champion of freedom and justice” can apply to many areas of life and although many may think one would have to do something amazing to achieve this, this part of the oath can be respected by even the littlest things in ones daily activity. If one becomes more open-minded to understanding others ideologies or the way others go about their lives instead of being quick to judge, then maybe the world would be a more understanding and accepting place. Thus allowing people to have the freedom they deserve. By accepting this belief one is bringing justice to this world and therefore being a champion of justice.[16][17] As we often see, conflicts can occur over common misconceptions of information. One must understand the full story and have all the facts before he can truly make a proper judgement.



I shall build a more peaceful world.

The final line of the oath is “I shall build a more peaceful world”. One can also easily obtain this goal by going about their daily lives in a more peaceful manner. If everyone did this, the world would obviously become a more peaceful place.[17] As we often see, conflicts can occur over common misconceptions of information. One must understand the full story and have all the facts before he can truly make a proper judgement.[16] However, this does not mean a student cannot defend themselves against aggression directed towards themselves as that would defeat some of the purpose of Taekwondo, an art of unarmed self-defence.




         Patterns, or teul (틀) in Korean, originally called hyeong (형), form an important aspect of training in Taekwon-Do. They are equivalent to the kata in karate. The majority of the patterns (except Yul-Gok, Ul-Ji and Tong-Il) start with a defensive move, which emphasizes taekwon-do's defensive nature. All of the patterns start and end at the same location. This ensures that the practitioners' stances are the correct length, width, and in the proper direction.[citation needed] There are 24 patterns in the official ITF syllabus; this is symbolic of the 24 hours in a day. One additional pattern, Ko-Dang (or Go-Dang), was retired/replaced by Juche in 1986 by General Choi Hong Hi.[5][6] Ko-Dang and Juche are similar, and some Taekwon-do organisations have renamed Juche to Ko-Dang[7] furthering confusion as to if a pattern referred to as "Ko-Dang" is the original 39 movement or the newer 45 movement pattern. The names of these patterns typically refer either to events in Korean history or to important people in Korean history. Elements of the patterns may also be historical references, such as the number of moves, the diagram, the way the pattern ends, and so on.

          Patterns (teul) are performed in accordance with "The Encyclopedia of Taekwon-Do" in 15 volumes written by General Choi Hong Hi, the latest edition being from 1999 (later editions have been published, but the 1999 editions were the last General Choi Hong Hi was directly involved with). This comprehensive work contains 15 volumes with volumes 8 through 15 dedicated to the 24 patterns and containing descriptions of the pattern movements as well as pictures showing possible applications of some of the movements. There is also the book entitled "The Korean Art of Self Defense" (the 1999 edition, the latest used by ITF under Grandmaster Tran Trieu Quan and ITF under Grandmaster Choi, or the 2004 edition, the latest used by ITF under Chang Ung), also known as the Condensed Encyclopedia, written by General Choi Hong Hi. This is a single condensed encyclopedia of approximately 770 pages with a section dedicated to the 24 patterns. There are also three fundamental exercises, named Saju-Jirugi (Four Direction Punch), Saju-Makgi (Four Direction Block) and Saju Tulgi (Four Direction Thrust). Saju-Jirugi and Saju-Makgi are basic defence exercises taught to beginners of the martial art. Saju Tulgi is less well known and is generally taught to 2nd Kup students just prior to Hwa-Rang. Saju Tulgi is not presented in the Condensed Encyclopedia but is present in the 15 Volume Encyclopedia (see: Volume 10, page 122).[8]



The 24 Patterns in Taekwon-Do ITF are:

Number                Hangeul                 Romanized                Movements                Rank
1                천지                Cheon-Ji                19                 9th geup
2                단군                Dan-Gun                21                 8th geup
3                도산                Do-San                24                 7th geup
4                원효                Won-Hyo                28                 6th geup
5                율곡                Yul-Gok                38                5th geup
6                중근                Jung-Geun                32                4th geup
7                퇴계                Toi-Gye                37                3rd geup
8                화랑                Hwa-Rang                29                 2nd geup
9                충무                Chung-Mu                30                1st geup
10                광개                Gwang-Gae                39                 1st dan
11                포은                Po-Eun                36                1st dan
12                계백                Gye-Baek                44                 1st dan
13                의암                Eui-Am                45                 2nd dan
14                충장                Chung-Jang                52                 2nd dan
15                주체                Ju-Che                45                2nd dan
16                삼일                Sam-Il                33                3rd dan
17                유신                Yu-Sin                68                3rd dan
18                최영                Choe-Yeong                46                3rd dan
19                연개                Yeon-Gae                49                 4th dan
20                을지                Eul-Ji                42                 4th dan
21                문무                 Mun-Mu                61                4th dan
22                서산                Seo-San                72                5th dan
23                세종                Se-Jong                24                5th dan
24                통일                Tong-Il                56                6th dan


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The basics of sinewave is down-up-down, in other words there is always a downward motion first, followed by an upward motion, and ending in a downward motion. There are however variations on sinewave, which are related to the motion, combination and speed of the techniques used. In traditional Taekwon-do, the fundamental exercises and the tuls there are five different motions:



• Normal motion

In saju jirugi, saju makgi and Chon-Ji tul the Taekwon-do student learns the normal speed of following movements. This is the first “motion”: normal motion. Movements are performed in normal speed, with a complete sinewave in one breath.



• Continuous motion

In Dan-Gun the Taekwon-do student learns the second motion: continous motion. Two movements are consecutively performed, with two sinewave during one breath.



• Fast motion

Do-San learns the student another motion: fast motion. Two movements are performed consecutively in fast speed, with two
Breath Control – Hohup Jojul
Controlled breathing not only affects one’s stamina and speed but can also condition a body to receive a blow and augment the power of a blow directed against an opponent. Through practice, breath stopped in the state of exhaling at the critical moment when a blow is landed against a pressure point on the body can prevent a loss of consciousness and stifle pain. A sharp exhaling of breath at the moment of impact and stopping the breath during the execution of a movement tenses the abdomen to concentrate maximum effort on the delivery of the motion. Slow inhaling helps the preparation of the next movement. An important rule to remember is to never inhale while focusing a block or blow against an opponent. Not only will this impede movement but it results in a loss of power. We should also practice disguised breathing to conceal any outward signs of fatigue because an experienced fighter will certainly press an attack when he realizes his opponent is at the point of exhaustion. One breath is required for one movement with the exception of a continuous motion.



• Connecting motion

In Yul-Gok there is another new motion: connecting motion. Two movements are performed in one sinewave and one breath.



• Slow motion

Joong-gun completes the fifth and final motion: slow motion. In slow motion the movement is performed slowly, but according to the theory of power there has to be a slight acceleration at the end of the movement. There is one (slow) movement, one sinewave, in one breath. Slow motion techniques are meant to learn the student body control and balance.



These five motions influence the sinewave, of which there are three variations:
• Full sinewave
• 2/3 sinewave
• 1/3 sinewave
Only in normal motion, continuous motion and slow motion there is a full sinewave (down-up-down). In fast motion there is 2/3 sinewave, as there is only an upward and downward movement. An example is found in do-san tul: the two punches following the apcha busugi. (movements 15 & 16 and 19 & 20) In connecting motion there is 1/3 sinewave, as there is only a downward movement. An example is found in yul-gok tul: the punch which follows the second hooking block (movements 16 & 17 and 19 & 20)



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TRAINING SYLLABUS.



General plan for training and test
( from 10th Gup to 1st Gup )

10th Gup
A. Training
1. Gibon Yonsup
• charyot sogi
• narani junbi sogi
• gunnun junbi sogi (emhasis on correct hand position and movement)
• narani so kaunde ap jirugi (emphasis on correct breath control and yell)
• gunnun so kaunde baro ap jirugi
- jillo nagagi
- jillo duruogi
• gunnun so kaunde bandae ap jirugi
• gunnun so palmok najunde makgi
- maga nagagi
- maga duruogi
• gunnun so sonkal najunde makgi
- maga nagagi
- maga duruogi
• gunnun so an palmok kaunde yop makgi
- maga nagagi
- maga duruogi
• apcha olligi
• apcha busigi
2. Tul
• saju jirugi
• saju makgi
3. Matsogi
• sambo matsogi (without companion)
B. Test for 9th Gup
1. Tul
• saju jirugi
• saju makgi
9th Gup
A. Training 1. Gibon Yonsup
• niunja sogi
• niunja so an palmok kaunde yop makgi
• gunnun so palmok najunde bandae makgi
• gunnun so sonkal najunde bandae makgi
• yopcha olligi
• yopcha jirugi
• omgyo didimyo yopcha jirugi
• yobapcha busigi
• gujari dolgi
• omgyo didimyo dolgi
2. Tul
• Chon-ji
3. Matsogi
• sambo matsogi
B. Test for 8th Gup
1. Tul
• saju makgi
• Chon-ji
2. Matsogi
• sambo matsogi (without companion)
8th Gup
A. Training 1. Gibon Yonsup
• annun sogi
• annun so kaunde ap jirugi
• gunnun so an palmok kaunde bandae yop makgi
• niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi
• gunnun so nopunde ap jirugi
• niunja so sang palmok makgi
• gunnun so palmok chookyo makgi
• niunja so sonkal kaunde yop taerigi
• naeryo chagi
2. Tul
• Dan-gun
3. Matsogi
• sambo matsogi
B. Test for 7th Gup
1. Tul
• Chon-ji
• Dan-gun
2. Matsogi
• sambo matsogi
1) A: gunnun so kaunde ap jirugi
B: gunnun so an palmok kaunde yop makgi
2) A: gunnun so nopunde ap jirugi
B: gunnun so palmok chookyo makgi
7th Gup
A. Training
1. Gibon Yonsup
• gunnun so bakat palmok nopunde yop makgi
• gunnun so sun sonkut tulgi
• gunnun so dung joomuk nopunde yop taerigi
• gunnun so bakat palmok nopunde hechyo makgi
• annun so sonkal kaunde yop taerigi
• niunja so palmok kaunde daebi makgi
• hosin sul (for Do-san tul)
• ibo omgyo didimyo yopcha olligi
2. Tul
• Do-san
3. Matsogi
• sambo matsogi
• ibo matsogi
B. Test for 6th Gup
1. Tul
• Dan-gun
• Do-san
2. Matsogi
• sambo matsogi
1) A: najunde apcha busigi (gunnun junbi sogi)
B: gunnun so palmok najunde makgi
2) A: niunja so sonkal yop taerigi
B: niunja so sonkal daebi makgi
3) A: gunnun so nopunde ap jirugi
B: gunnun so bakat palmok nopunde yop makgi
• ibo matsogi
- ap jirugi
- sonkal yop taerigi
- dung joomuk yop taerigi
- apcha busigi
6th Gup
A. Training 1. Gibon Yonsup
• moa junbi sogi A
• guburyo junbi sogi A
• gojung sogi
• niunja so sonkal nopunde anuro taerigi
• gojung so kaunde baro jirugi
• gunnun so palmok dollimyo makgi
• niunja so palmok kaunde daebi makgi
• dollyo chagi
• yop dollyo chagi
2. Tul
• Won-hyo
3. Matsogi
• ibo matsogi
• ilbo matsogi
B. Test for 5th Gup
1. Tul
• Do-san
• Won-hyo
2. Matsogi
• sambo matsogi (two way)
• ibo matsogi
- yopcha jirugi
- dollyo chagi
- yop dollyo chagi
5th Gup
A. Training 1. Gibon Yonsup
• kyocha sogi
• gunnun so sonbadak kaunde golcho makgi
• gunnun so ap palkup taerigi
• niunja so sang sonkal makgi
• kyocha so dung joomuk nopunde yop taerigi
• gunnun so doo palmok nopunde makgi
• gunnun so sonkal chookyo makgi
• ibo omgyo didimyo sonkal yop taerigi
• bandae dollyo chagi
• dolmyo yop chagi (180°)
2. Tul
• Yul-gok
3. Matsogi
• ilbo matsogi
• ban jayu matsogi
B. Test for 4th Gup
1. Tul
• Won-hyo
• Yul-gok
2. Matsogi
• ibo matsogi
- naeryo chagi
- bandae dollyo chagi
- dolmyo yop chagi
• ilbo matsogi
3. Wiryok
• apcha busigi (apkumchi)
4th Gup
A. Training 1. Gibon Yonsup
• moa junbi sogi B
• dwitbal sogi
• nachuo sogi
• niunja so sonkal dung kaunde yop makgi
• dwitbal so sonbadak ollyo makgi
• gunnun so wi palkup taerigi
• gunnun so sang joomuk nopunde sewo jirugi
• gunnun so sang joomuk dwijibo jirugi
• gunnun so kyocha joomuk chookyo makgi
• niunja so dung joomuk nopunde yop makgi
• gunnun so nopunde bandae ap jirugi
• niunja so kaunde bandae jirugi
• nachuo so sonbadak noollo makgi
• moa so giokja jirugi
• gojung so digutja makgi
• hosin sul (for Joong-gun tul
) • twio nomo yop chagi
2. Tul
• Joong-gun
3. Matsogi
• ban jayu matsogi
• jayu matsogi
B. Test for 3rd Gup
1. Tul
• Yul-gok
• Joong-gun
2. Matsogi
• ilbo matsogi
• ban jayu matsogi
3. Wiryok
• sonkal yop taerigi
• yopcha jirugi (balkal)

3rd Gup - A. Training
1. Gibon Yonsup
• gunnun so dwijibun sonkut najunde tulgi
• moa so dung joomuk yopdwi taerigi
• gunnun so kyocha joomuk noollo makgi
• gunnun so kyocha joomuk naeryo makgi
• moa so sang yop palkup tulgi
• annun so bakat palmok san makgi
• niunja so doo palmok najunde miro makgi
• gunnun so opun sonkut nopunde tulgi
• niunja so palmok najunde bandae makgi
• niunja so dung joomuk yopdwi taerigi
• kyocha so kyocha joomuk noollo makgi
• niunja so sonkal najunde daebi makgi
• moorup ollyo chagi
• bandae dollyo goro chag
i 2. Tul
• Toi-gye
3. Matsogi
• ban jayu matsogi
• jayu matsogi
B. Test for 2nd Gup
1. Tul
• Joong-gun
• Toi-gye
2. Matsogi
• ilbo matsogi (without arrange)
• ban jayu matsogi
3. Wiryok
• ap joomuk jirugi (women - sonkal yop taerigi)
• dollyo chagi
• dolmyo yop chagi (180°)
2nd Gup
A. Training
1. Gibon Yonsup
• moa junbi sogi C
• soojik sogi
• annun so sonbadak miro makgi
• niunja so ollyo jirugi
• soojik so sonkal yop naeryo taerigi
• niunja so kaunde baro jirugi
• niunja so yop palkup tulgi
• moa so an palmok yobap makgi
• twimyo yop chagi
• twimyo nopi chagi
• twimyo dollyo chagi
• mikulgi
2. Tul
• Hwa-rang
3. Matsogi
• jayu matsogi
• hosin sul
B. Test for 1st Gup
1. Tul
• Toi-gye
• Hwa-rang
2. Matsogi
• ban jayu matsogi
• jayu matsogi
3. Wiryok
• dung joomuk yop taerigi (women - sonkal yop taerigi)
• bandae dollyo chagi
• twimyo yopcha jirugi
1st Gup
A. Training 1. Gibon Yonsup
• gunnun so sonkal nopunde ap taerigi
• niunja so palmok najunde bandae makgi
• gunnun so sonkal dung nopunde ap taerigi
• twio dolmyo sonkal kaunde daebi makgi
• annun so palmok kaunde ap makgi
• annun so dung joomuk nopunde yop taerigi
• niunja so kyocha sonkal momchau makgi
• gunnun so sang sonbadak ollyo makgi
• dwitcha jirugi
• twio dolmyo chagi
2. Tul
• Choong-moo
3. Matsogi
• jayu matsogi
• hosin sul
B. Test for 1st Dan
1. Tul
• Hwa-rang
• Choong-moo
2. Matsogi
• jayu matsogi
• hosin sul
3. Tukgi
• twimyo nopi chagi
• twimyo bandae dollyo chagi
• twio dolmyo chagi
• twio nomo chagi
4. Wiryok
• ap joomuk jirugi (men only)
• sonkal yop taerigi
• yopcha jirugi
• dollyo chagi
• bandae dollyo chagi
(women - dolmyo yop chagi 180°)


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The International Taekwon-Do Federation's sparring rules.



Hand attacks to the head are allowed.

The scoring system is:
• 1 Point for: Punch to the body or head, kick to the body.
• 2 Points for: Jumping kick to body, jumping punch to the head or stationary kick to the head.
• 3 Points for: Jumping kick to the head.

• The competition area is typically a 9×9 meter square in international championships. Circular rings are also used, although generally not under competitive circumstances.

Competitors do not wear the hogu (although they are required to wear approved foot and hand protection equipment, as well as optional head guards). This scoring system varies between individual organisations within the ITF- for example, in the TAGB, punches to the head or body score 1, kicks to the body score 2 and kicks to the head score 3

A continuous point system is utilized in ITF competition, where the fighters are allowed to continue after scoring a technique. Full-force blows are not allowed, and knockouts result in a disqualification of the attacker; although these rules vary between ITF organizations. At the end of two minutes (or some other specified time) the competitor with more scoring techniques wins.

Fouls in ITF sparring include heavy contact, attacking a fallen opponent, leg sweeping, holding/grabbing, intentional attack to a target other than allowed (for example below the belt, attacks to the back)

ITF competitions also feature performances of patterns, breaking, and 'special techniques' (where competitors perform prescribed board breaks at great heights).

ITF competition sparring rounds are 2 minutes and in national and international levels of competition they hold two rounds each 2 minutes with a one-minute rest in between. Certain rules are no strikes below the belt, no elbow strikes, brawling, no falling down, no going outside of the ring, hit to the groin and knee strike are not allowed. The ring is a 9 metre by 9 metre (8 × 8 metre optional) ring marked by square mats or tape instead of a traditional style kickboxing rings with ropes. It has no sides allowing the fighter to move out of bounds. Whenever a fighter creates an infraction of the rules the centre referee will issue a warning to the fighter who created the infraction. 3 warnings equals a minus point. If a fighter uses excessive contact, he or she will be given a foul, which is an automatic minus point ; three fouls in a bout results in disqualification. ITF taekwon-do is fought in continuous point sparring. Four judges score the fights in each of the corners in the square ring. After the fight, a judge votes for which ever fighter has the most points and a winner is declared. In the case of a draw the fighters go to a one-minute overtime round. If there is another draw the fighters go to a sudden death round where the fighter who scores first is declared the winner.

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Globally recognized

The ITF ranking system consists of six solid colour belts; white, yellow, green, blue, red, and black.[12] Coloured belt ranks are called in English grades and in Korean geup (급) (often romanized as gup or kup), whereas black belt ranks are called ranks/dan (단):


Grade Level Description




-->   10th geup White – Signifies innocence, as that of the beginning student who has no previous knowledge of Taekwon-Do. 3 months min requirement.

-->    9th geup White with yellow tag. 3 months min. requirement

-->   8th geup Yellow – Signifies the earth from which a plant sprouts and takes root as the foundation of Taekwon-Do is being laid. 4 months minimum requirement.

-->   7th geup Yellow with green tag. 4 months minimum requirement

-->   6th geup Green – Signifies the plant's growth as Taekwon-Do skills begin to develop. 4 months minimum requirement.

-->   5th geup Green with blue tag. 4 months minimum requirement

-->   4th geup Blue – Signifies the Heaven towards which the plant matures into a towering tree as training in Taekwon-Do progresses. 4 months minimum requirement.

-->   3rd geup Blue with red tag. 5 months minimum requirement

-->   2nd geup Red – Signifies danger, cautioning the student to exercise control and warning the opponent to stay away. 6 months minimum requirement.

-->   1st geup Red with black tag. 6 months requirement

-->   1st dan Black – Opposite of white, therefore signifying maturity and proficiency in Taekwon-Do; also indicates the wearer's imperviousness to darkness and fear.

-->   2nd dan Assistant Instructor (must remain at this rank at least 2 years)

-->   3rd dan Assistant Instructor (must remain at this rank at least 3 years)

-->   4th dan International Instructor (must remain at this rank at least 4 years). At this point, a person may become a "SaBum-Nim"

-->   5th dan Instructor (must remain at this rank at least 5 years)

-->   6th dan Instructor (must remain at this rank at least 6 years)

-->   7th dan Master Instructor (must remain at this rank at least 7 years)

-->   8th dan Senior Master Instructor (must remain at this rank at least 8 years)

-->   9th dan Grand Master

The reason for nine black belt degrees is that the number nine is not only the highest of the single-digit numbers, but also is the number of three multiplied by three. In the Orient, three is one of the more esteemed numbers. The Chinese character for 3 is three horizontal lines, one above the other: 三. The bottom line represents earth; the middle line represents mortals; the upper line represents heaven.[13] It was believed that a man who could unite the three realms in himself, would aspire or be reborn into a king; this is shown by the vertical lign connecting the realms in the character for king: 王.



Black belt promotion

Up to 8th dan, all ranks require the student to perform a test of all skills and knowledge up to their rank to be promoted. 9th dan may be awarded with consent of the promotion committee with no physical test required, due to the nature and responsibilities of a master no longer being centered on the physical development. However, if the recipient desires, a demonstration may be performed. 9th degree (being the highest) can only be awarded when the special committee examines and reaches a unanimous consent. According to an ITF Encyclopedia 4th degree may grade students up to 2nd degree. A 5th or 6th degree International Instructor may grade students up to 3rd degree, while a 7th degree Master may grade students up to 5th degree. An 8th degree Master may grade students up to 6th degree. Promotion to 7th degree or above must be done by the ITF's Master Promotion Committee.